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Adobe Illustrator CC 2020 24.0.2.373 Crack Activation [Mac Win] [Latest]



 


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adobe illustrator cc 2020 24.0.2.373 - UPDATE Extracellular signal-regulated kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways mediate vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2-induced migration and proliferation of human vascular smooth muscle cells. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced migration and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) contribute to vascular injury, remodeling, and neointimal formation. Recent studies suggest that VEGF also mediates the migration and proliferation of vascular endothelial cells (ECs). We have previously demonstrated that VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) is crucial for VSMC migration. We have also shown that platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB, an important mediator of VSMC migration, induces the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. Here we investigated the signaling pathways downstream of VEGFR-2 and upstream of ERK and p38 MAPK that mediate VEGF-induced VSMC migration and proliferation. The phosphorylation of ERK and p38 MAPK were induced by VEGF in a time-dependent manner. Pretreatment of PDGF-BB or FGF-2, but not basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), significantly inhibited VEGF-induced ERK phosphorylation. In contrast, VEGF, but not PDGF-BB or bFGF, induced p38 MAPK phosphorylation. VEGF-induced VSMC migration and proliferation were also inhibited by PDGF-BB or FGF-2. PD98059, an inhibitor of ERK activation, completely inhibited VEGF-induced VSMC migration and proliferation. SB203580, an inhibitor of p38 MAPK activation, significantly inhibited both VEGF-induced VSMC migration and proliferation. PDGF-BB-induced ERK phosphorylation was completely inhibited by PD98059, but partially inhibited by SB203580. PDGF-BB-induced VSMC migration and proliferation were also inhibited by PD98059, but not by SB203580. We conclude that VEGF induces VSMC migration and proliferation through VEGFR-2 via the activation of the ERK and p38 MAPK pathways, which may be associated with the in vivo proliferation of VSMCs.0 1

 

 


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Adobe Illustrator CC 2020 24.0.2.373 Crack Activation [Mac Win] [Latest]
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